Archive for April, 2010

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April 30, 2010
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Key Features of the Java Language

April 29, 2010

The Java language has key features that make it ideal for developing server applications. These features include:

  • Simplicity–Java is a simpler language to master than most others you use in server applications because of its consistent enforcement of the object model. The large, standard set of class libraries brings powerful tools to Java developers on all platforms.
  • Portability–Java is portable across platforms. It is possible to write platform-dependent code in Java, but it is also simple to write programs that move seamlessly across machines. Oracle server applications, which do not support graphical user interfaces directly on the platform that hosts them, also tend to avoid the few platform portability issues that Java has.
  • Automatic Storage Management–The Java virtual machine automatically performs all memory allocation and deallocation during program execution. Java programmers can neither allocate nor free memory explicitly. Instead, they depend on the JVM to perform these bookkeeping operations, allocating memory as they create new objects and deallocating memory when the objects are no longer referenced. The latter operation is known as garbage collection.
  • Strong Typing–Before you use a Java variable, you must declare the class of the object it will hold. Java’s strong typing makes it possible to provide a reasonable and safe solution to inter-language calls in the case of Java and PL/SQL and to integrate Java and SQL.
  • No Pointers–Although Java retains much of the flavor of C in its syntax, it does not support direct pointers or pointer manipulation. You pass all parameters, except primitive types, by reference (that is, object identity is preserved), not by value. Java does not provide C’s low level, direct access to pointers, which eliminates memory corruption and leaks.
  • Exception Handling–Java exceptions are objects. Java requires developers to declare which exceptions can be thrown by methods in any particular class.
  • Flexible Namespace–Java defines classes and holds them within a hierarchical structure that mirrors the Internet’s domain namespace. You can distribute Java applications and avoid name collisions. Java extensions such as the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) provide a framework for multiple name services to be federated. Java’s namespace approach is flexible enough for Oracle to incorporate the concept of a schema for resolving class names, while fully complying with the language specification.
  • Security–The design of Java bytecodes and the JVM allow for built-in mechanisms to verify Java binary code has not been tampered with. Oracle8i is installed with an instance of SecurityManager, which, combined with Oracle database security, secures who can invoke any Java methods.
  • Standards for Connectivity to Relational Databases–JDBC and SQLJ enable Java code to access and manipulate data resident in relational databases. Oracle provides drivers that allow vendor-independent, portable Java code to access the relational database.

What is the purpose of process assessment? Why has spice been developed as a standard for process assessment

April 22, 2010

This part of the International Standard defines the minimum set of requirements for conducting a software process assessment to ensure that the outputs of the assessment are consistent, repeatable and representative of the process instances assessed.

Process assessment is an activity that is performed either during a process improvement initiative. In either case, the formal entry to the assessment process occurs with the compilation of the assessment input which defines the purpose of the assessment (why it is being carried out), the scope of the assessment (which processes are being assessed), what constraints, if any, apply to the assessment, and any aditional information that needs to be gathered. The assessment input also defines the responsibility for carrying out the assessment and gives definitions for any processes within the scope of the assessment that are extended processes

Process assessment is undertaken to understand an organizational unit’s current processes. An assessment may be conducted as a self-assessment, an assisted self-assessment, a self-assessment with external verification, or an independent assessment. A team or an individual approach can be used to perform the assessment. This International Standard does not define one methodology for the performance of an assessment but rather a framework and key elements that an assessment methodology should incorporate.

An assessment is carried out by assessing selected processes against the process model. This consists of a set of process-specific base practices on one hand and a set of generic practices on the other hand. The generic practices apply across all processes. The generic practices are grouped into five process capability levels that define how well the process is managed. The assessment output includes a set of process capability level ratings for each process instance assessed.

An assessment is implemented with the aid of an assessment instrument, or set of instruments, constructed according to the requirements. The process assessment may be carried out by a team with at least one qualified assessor who has the competencies or on a continuous basis using suitable tools for data collection.

This part of the International Standard assumes familiarity with the relevant guidance parts of the standard. It is primarily addressed to the qualified assessor and other people, such as the sponsor of the assessment, who need to assure themselves that the requirements have been met. It will also be of value to developers of assessment methods and of tools to support an assessment.

SPICE (Software Process Improvement and Capability dEtermination) is an international collaborative effort to develop a Standard for Software Process Assessment under the auspices of the International Committee on Software Engineering standard, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7/WG10. This paper provides an overview of the project and its current results (now undergoing world-wide trials). Some technical details are also given on the Process Capability Model, and on the Measurement Framework which are the two fundamental elements of the standard. The Process Capability Model identifies a set of software best practices and shows how they fit together to create an improvement path for the software development process. The Measurement Framework is used during the process assessment activities to evaluate the implemented practices and generate a Capability Profile for each process assessed.

SPICE is a major international initiative to support the development of an International Standard for Software Process Assessment. The project has three principal goals:

to develop a working draft for a standard for software process assessment.

to conduct industry trials of the emerging standard.

to promote the technology transfer of software process assessment into the software industry world-wide.

The first goal of the project was achieved in June 1995, with the release of Version 1 of a draft standard for software process assessment (the SPICE Documents) to WG10 for international ballot among the standards community, following the normal process for development of international standards. Following this ballot, the documents have been carried through the international standardisation process and have been published as ISO/IEC TR 15504:1998 – Software Process Assessment. WG10 has now commenced work to revise the TR with a view to ultimate publication as a full International Standard. Further details of the progress of the document set through the standardisation process can be found on the WG10 Web Site.

The SPICE Trials are now the principal focus of the project. More information about the trials, including provision for registration as trials participants, is available in this Web Site. The promotion activities of the Project are on ongoing concern, addressed through activities such as the annual International SPICE Symposium and the publication of articles and books. In order to support excellence and consistency in training for assessors, the project has developed and released a SPICE Assessor Training Syllabus.

Five international Technical Centres have been established to coordinate the international effort on the project. Its conduct has brought together a unique combination of standards developers, software developers, and academics from over 20 countries, to generate a consistent and validated framework for assessment in a remarkably short period of time. The success of the approach can be gauged from the results: while the project has fallen behind its initial schedule, it produced a full suite of documents suitable for extensive industry trials in a period of two years.

Why an International Standard?

The methods of Software Process Assessment are coming more generally into use in the management of software development, acquisition and utilisation, in the face of substantial evidence of the success of such methods in driving improvements in both quality and productivity.

The primary impetus for the use of assessment has come not from the mainstream of the software development industry, but rather from acquirers of large, critical software-intensive systems – notably in the defence and telecommunications sectors. Thus, the most widely known of current methods, the Capability Maturity Model, was developed by the Software Engineering Institute as a response to the needs of the US Defense Department for better techniques for the selection of contractors. Process assessment methods have also been developed by a number of the major players in the telecommunications field, including British Telecom, Bell Canada / BNR and Bellcore, and are applied to the management of risk in acquisition.

At the same time, there has always been a recognition that process assessment can be a strong and effective driver for process improvement. The major focus of use of the CMM has been on improvement, and most acquirers use assessment approaches as part of a partnership approach with their suppliers, focusing on improvement. In addition, methods have been developed with a specific focus on improvement, in work such as the Bootstrap project. As experience with the technique grows, substantial empirical evidence has accumulated demonstrating the benefits that can be derived from an assessment-based improvement programme.

The increasing number of assessment approaches available, and the increasing use of the technique in commercially-sensitive areas, were the key motivating factors behind the development and acceptance of a proposal to develop an International Standard for software process assessment.

An International Standard on Software Process Assessment will deliver the following benefits to industry and software users:

Benefits For Software Industry

software suppliers will submit to just one process assessment scheme (presently numerous schemes are used)

software development organisations will have a tool to initiate and sustain a continuous process improvement

programme managers will have a means to ensure that their software development is aligned with, and supports, the business needs of the organisation

about your pending work…

April 18, 2010

I love work. Unfortunately, if I will do my work, It get finished, then how I can finish my love. So keep work pending. enjoy laziness with positive attitude….

about your pending work…

April 18, 2010

I love work. Unfortunately, if I will do my work, It get finished, then how I can finish my love. So keep work pending. enjoy laziness with positive attitude….